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James B. Longacre (August 11, 1794 – January 1, 1869) was the Chief Engraver of the United States Mint (1844–1869).

He was born in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, becoming an apprentice in an engraving firm. He portrayed some of the leading men of his day in illustrations; support from some, such as John C. Calhoun, led to his federal appointment. In Longacre's first years, the Philadelphia Mint was dominated by Director Robert M. Patterson and Chief Coiner Franklin Peale, who resented Longacre's appointment. Peale and Patterson nearly got Longacre fired, but the chief engraver convinced Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith that he should be retained. In 1856, Longacre designed the Flying Eagle cent, but the coin proved difficult to strike, leading to the Indian Head cent three years later. He died in 1869, succeeded by William Barber. Longacre's coins are generally well-regarded today, though sometimes criticized for lack of artistic